Effects of Recharge of Chlorinated State Water Project Waters to Groundwaters in Lancaster Area of California
As the population in Southern California increases, more and more demands are being put on the state’s groundwater resources, further exacerbating the overdraft problem. Many communities in Southern California are recharging their aquifers with imported surface waters to combat this problem. The major recharge normally is carried out during wet weather periods when surface water is plentiful. However, recharging these groundwater aquifers with imported surface water can create the potential for water quality degradation. The problem can start when surface water is disinfected with chlorine to prevent biofouling and remove pathogens.
Groundwaters in many parts of California are an important sole source of water supply. However, in some areas indiscriminate pumping has lowered aquifer levels by hundreds of feet. This has caused sediment compaction and ground subsidence.
Historically, industry has relied on hazardous chemicals such as chlorine and expensive processes such as pasteurization to rid its water supplies of pathogens. Currently, though, the use of ultraviolet (UV) light, the same as the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum of sunlight responsible for killing microorganisms, is providing a safe, reliable and highly effective method of getting the job done.
The science, selection and applications
Chlorine produces bacteria-free water and eliminates algae and slime. It also removes hydrogen sulfide from ground water (wells and springs) and eliminates iron bacteria (cenothrix), which are associated with objectionable odor and taste.
Despite these important facts, some people still object to chlorine in their drinking water. Comments such as “I don’t like the way chlorine makes my water taste” are common.
Chlorine proves highly effective in water treatment
Since the introduction of the metering pump, chemical feed for disinfection has been a primary application. As we move into the 21st Century, it again is time to review how we introduce chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite into our water systems. While the goal remains the same, changes in pump technology have been created to provide more accurate and consistent results. This article will discuss current metering pump technologies, proper pump sizing, installation and future enhancements.
Motor-driven, solenoid and peristaltic metering pumps provide proper control for specific applications and multiple needs.
Purification of drinking water containing microbiological contamination requires some form of disinfection treatment to kill or render microbiological organisms harmless.
Of the available disinfection treatment methods for private water systems, chlorination in the most commonly used.
A disinfection choice for public and private water systems.
Well-designed water distribution and cooling systems,
coupled with sound management and operational procedures, are essential to
control Legionella in industrial facilities—and a monitoring program
should not be considered as a replacement. However, most experts even those
ill-disposed towards routine Legionella monitoring, would agree that monitoring
should be considered if enough legionellosis risk factors apply to the system
in question. No management program, regardless of its treatment, maintenance or
monitoring components, can guarantee the absence of future legionellosis, but
prudent operational practices combined with ongoing review of risk factors will
allow facility managers to minimize exposure to Legionella and to its legal consequences.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority
A report released by the Environmental Working Group (EWG)
and U.S. Public Interest Research Group (U.S. PIRG) has taken aim at
chlorination byproducts (CBPs) in tap water. The group‘s assessment
states that more than 100,000 women are at elevated risk of miscarriage or
birth defects because of CBPs in tap water.
When it comes to the methods to increase, or boost, the low level of disinfectant in distribution water, information is scarce
This article will present an overview of Legionella bacteria, its ecology and sample collection strategies. A discussion of the pros and cons of Legionella monitoring also is included.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority.
Although in October, the IBWA had seen only a slight increase in sales overall since the attacks, individual companies have reported increased sales since Sept. 11. This partly is due to bottled water being named as one of the must-have items in case of further terrorism.
Lingering concerns over the economy remain high on everyone’s minds. With 2002 just a short time away, financial analysts already are predicting what the year will look like for our nation – some are positive and some make you want to horde your money in your mattress.