Legionnaires' disease is considered so catastrophic that, in France, it must be reported to the medical authorities immediately. This practice has been in place since 1987. During the last decade, public health monitoring systems for this disease have been strengthened. Today, this hazard that arises from buildings has become an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. The resulting respiratory infections are behind the recurrent epidemics emanating from hot water systems in buildings and air-conditioning cooling towers.
Companies develop treatment for hot water installations and air conditioning systems
Part 1 described the search for more potent disinfection technologies and began the discussion of the laboratory studies.
In order to ensure municipal water demands were met, the city of El Dorado, Arkansas contracted with Tanner Engineering & Carter-Burgess to design five new deep wells, water transmission mains, ground storage tanks, pump station, and chlorination facilities. In order to complete the project before the sultry days of summer, the municipality and engineering firm decided to save time and energy by installing a modular pumping system.
Two rules in 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act are challenging many water utilities to meet stricter water quality requirements. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)2 and the Disinfection?Disinfection By-Products (D-DBP) Rule3, are requiring utilities to implement more advanced technologies in water treatment. The Surface Water Treatment Rule emphasizes the need for utilities to meet minimum levels of disinfection for surface waters, whereas the Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule limits the disinfectant byproducts. Therefore, utilities will have to implement a treatment approach that balances the benefits of disinfection against disinfection byproducts.
Treatment facilities use online ammonia analyzers to monitor and control treatment processes. Controlling ammonia levels can make treatment processes more reliable and cost effective. Currently, there are three major types of online ammonia analyzer technologies available to measure ammonia concentration in a treatment process stream.
For nearly 70 years, the public water system in the Town of Sterling, Massachusetts operated without incident, delivering clean water to more than 2,000 homes. Because the water from the town’s well field was clean and free of contamination, there was no need for a permanent disinfection system. That all changed in September 1999 when a storm caused by Hurricane Floyd and the state’s increasing beaver population combined to cause bacterial contamination in the town’s water supply.
We'll discuss the well ozone water treatment application. Each application is a potential business in itself, which means greater revenue and profit. All that is necessary from you is the motivation to boldly go where you have not gone before.
At the Procter & Gamble manufacturing plant in Greensboro, N.C., an Aquionics ultraviolet (UV) dechlorination unit was installed before two banks of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Trials that ran soon after the UV system’s installation showed a dramatic reduction in the RO membrane wash frequency—down from an average of eight cleanings per month to only two per month.
Reverse Osmosis Membranes Maintenance Costs Reduced
Ozone technology developments have opened new applications for these established water treatment technologies. Driving these changes has been the identification of new, more disinfection-resistant microorganisms such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts and governmental regulations designed to protect the public health from the hazards of ingestion of these microorganisms. Additionally, the desire to prevent or minimize the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts formed during chlorination has stimulated new interest in the use of ozone. Combinations of ozone with hydrogen peroxide and/or ultraviolet (UV) radiation can destroy many contaminants present in ground water.
Small Systems Adopt Ozone Technology to Protect Against Cryptosporidium, Giardia
In this last section of a three-part series, the use of ozone, ionization, distillation and aeration is discussed in a simple fashion to help the beginner rationalize the importance for a full understanding of these technologies and the need, again, for a professional water treatment specialist.
This is the final article in a three-part series discussing water chemistry and technology basics.
Brushing up on water treatment 101, part 3