Chlorine dioxide is not a new technology for public drinking water facilities or pulp and paper producers, but its use as a secondary treatment system for small-scale applications is new. Beyond the chemistry and microbiology, potential small-scale operators want answers to a few simple questions: Should I use it? How does it work? What extra work is it going to make for me?
At the Patuxent Water Reclamation Facility in Anne Arundel County, Md., a carefully considered construction sequence will keep the facility in operation during its retrofit from chlorine to UV disinfection. Construction started in June 2002 and is expected to be complete by summer 2003.
The use of ultraviolet (UV) light for the treatment of drinking water is becoming more acceptable by both the public and regulatory agencies as an alternative disinfectant. Water suppliers that are developing new water treatment facilities or modifying existing ones now commonly investigate this technology to determine its applicability to their treatment processes.
The following is the first of 11 articles addressing ozone's
applications, installation, sales, service, basics and more. The 12th and final
installment will be a quiz to test your ozone knowledge—so make sure you
come back each month to brush up. Details and instructions will be given in the
Legionnaires' disease is considered so catastrophic that, in France, it must be reported to the medical authorities immediately. This practice has been in place since 1987. During the last decade, public health monitoring systems for this disease have been strengthened. Today, this hazard that arises from buildings has become an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. The resulting respiratory infections are behind the recurrent epidemics emanating from hot water systems in buildings and air-conditioning cooling towers.
Companies develop treatment for hot water installations and air conditioning systems
Part 1 described the search for more potent disinfection technologies and began the discussion of the laboratory studies.
In order to ensure municipal water demands were met, the city of El Dorado, Arkansas contracted with Tanner Engineering & Carter-Burgess to design five new deep wells, water transmission mains, ground storage tanks, pump station, and chlorination facilities. In order to complete the project before the sultry days of summer, the municipality and engineering firm decided to save time and energy by installing a modular pumping system.
Two rules in 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act are challenging many water utilities to meet stricter water quality requirements. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)2 and the Disinfection?Disinfection By-Products (D-DBP) Rule3, are requiring utilities to implement more advanced technologies in water treatment. The Surface Water Treatment Rule emphasizes the need for utilities to meet minimum levels of disinfection for surface waters, whereas the Disinfection/Disinfection By-Products Rule limits the disinfectant byproducts. Therefore, utilities will have to implement a treatment approach that balances the benefits of disinfection against disinfection byproducts.
Treatment facilities use online ammonia analyzers to monitor and control treatment processes. Controlling ammonia levels can make treatment processes more reliable and cost effective. Currently, there are three major types of online ammonia analyzer technologies available to measure ammonia concentration in a treatment process stream.