Research on arsenic can be broken down into three general areas -- health effects, treatment options and cost evaluations.There are more than 1,000 published research papers on health effects alone. This section provides an over-view of the most prominent research related to these areas which have impacted EPA’s decisions. There also are links to research organizations that can provide access to the specific projects conducted.
Historical and On-going Research
Current Legislative Issues
In addition to officially sponsored research projects being performed throughout the world (see Section V for more information on research), many universities, government organizations and industry professionals are active in providing solutions to this issue. The following papers have been presented on arsenic treatment, health effects or policy issues at various tradeshows and conferences throughout the United States.
White papers on Arsenic
Consumers unwilling to drink arsenic contaminated water are demanding a more rapid implementation. Publicly owned utilities, however, will be held hostage from implementing a more rapid solution due to government approval cycles, annual budgets, required biding processes and slow implementation schedules. As a result, in-home treatment systems, which immediately can be installed, are a very popular treatment option for individual homeowners. Other advantages such as low implementation/operating costs and improved flexibility make the POU/POE approach option appealing.
Current Solutions and Practices
Arsenic is a naturally occurring metal found in rocks and soil, which can be released into the environment through geological events such as volcanic activity and erosion. Other releases of arsenic into the environment occur through industrial processes such as production of paints, metals, soaps, dyes, drugs, semi-conductors and wood preservatives, as well as in mining and smelting.
General Information and Background
Let's take a closer look at the technology and operation of ion exchange resins and processes used today in industrial water treatment systems.
In 2001, the Minnesota State Fair built a 50-foot by 80-foot state-of-the-art barn, which would feature cows, pigs and lambs. The Miracle of Birth Center was built to reflect modern animal production practices in the existing Children's Barnyard at the fairgrounds. Pregnant cows, pigs and lambs were transported from out state Minnesota for the special birthing exhibit in the Children's Barnyard.
Filtered water helps birthing animals at Minnesota State Fair
In response to the increasing number of outbreaks in U.S. hospitals, Pall Corp. introduced a water filter that prevents the spread of Legionella and other potentially lethal pathogens
Presence of the bacteria Legionella pneumophilia in hospitals and nursing homes in the U.S. and Europe has been detected at an alarming rate. Contaminated water has frequently been found to be the source. In response to the increasing number of outbreaks in U.S. hospitals, Pall Corp. introduced the Pall AquaSafe water filter.
A wide range of technologies, some new and some more traditional, is being marketed and applied for arsenic treatment. Each of these technologies has specific properties impacting its suitability for any particular scale of application. While rare, the ability of a single water treatment technology to perform effectively across many treatment platforms is not unique.
Cross-platform viability of treatment technologies
In February, NSF International arranged for many experts to cover the issues and facets of point-of-use and point-of-entry (POU/POE), how they can be used for PWS compliance and other opportunities for the manufacturers and users. This article is intended to provide opinions and a broad conference overview.