Whether it is an issue of limited space, material compatibility or just challenging feed water, there always will be a need for custom-engineered solutions in the water treatment industry. Lee Co. of Nashville, Tenn., first looked at preengineered reverse osmosis (RO) systems from its local water treatment equipment dealers. The company quickly realized that this approach would not fit a particular situation.
Custom-designed nanofiltration system solves space and process challenges
Although the basic components of any filtering system include the filter console, the communications link, the actuators and the instrumentation, it is the turnkey integration of these components into a pre-packaged, pre-engineered and even pre-programmed system that merits its classification as a major step forward.
Simple, low-power network architecture with menu-driven central control can revolutionize filtering operations
The Watsonville Wastewater Treatment Facility currently pumps 400 gallons per minute through the Tekleen water filter manufactured by Automatic Filters in Los Angeles.
Watsonville, Calif. incorporates automatic filter to recycle treated wastewater
These terms are pulled from "All About Water: An Illustrated Dictionary of Water Terminology" by Wes McGowan
Glossary of Terms
What research is being done at University's throughout the US? Colleges and universities across the U.S. are continuing their efforts in educating the population on the subject of arsenic. Both public and private universities are contributing their time, money, and expertise in areas of arsenic research such as geochemistry, health effects, and treatment options. Research programs, such as the ones listed below, are just a glimpse of the ongoing studies for arsenic. Ongoing research is necessary in order to continue to develop efficient and cost-effective solutions for the far-reaching problem of arsenic contamination.
University Research Programs
Research on arsenic can be broken down into three general areas -- health effects, treatment options and cost evaluations.There are more than 1,000 published research papers on health effects alone. This section provides an over-view of the most prominent research related to these areas which have impacted EPA’s decisions. There also are links to research organizations that can provide access to the specific projects conducted.
Historical and On-going Research
Current Legislative Issues
In addition to officially sponsored research projects being performed throughout the world (see Section V for more information on research), many universities, government organizations and industry professionals are active in providing solutions to this issue. The following papers have been presented on arsenic treatment, health effects or policy issues at various tradeshows and conferences throughout the United States.
White papers on Arsenic
Consumers unwilling to drink arsenic contaminated water are demanding a more rapid implementation. Publicly owned utilities, however, will be held hostage from implementing a more rapid solution due to government approval cycles, annual budgets, required biding processes and slow implementation schedules. As a result, in-home treatment systems, which immediately can be installed, are a very popular treatment option for individual homeowners. Other advantages such as low implementation/operating costs and improved flexibility make the POU/POE approach option appealing.
Current Solutions and Practices
Arsenic is a naturally occurring metal found in rocks and soil, which can be released into the environment through geological events such as volcanic activity and erosion. Other releases of arsenic into the environment occur through industrial processes such as production of paints, metals, soaps, dyes, drugs, semi-conductors and wood preservatives, as well as in mining and smelting.
General Information and Background