The City of Chesapeake, Va. is located in the region called Hampton Roads, the 27th largest metro area in the country with more than 1.5 million residents. With an annual rainfall of approximately 48", its designers must contend with the prospects of determining where 294 billion gallons of water will go. A large share of this rainfall will find its way into the storm sewers. Last year, the City Council appropriated an extra $467,600 for contract cave-in repairs. The City of Chesapeake has recognized this problem and is developing a program to address it.
Pipe Sealing Project Prevents Future Flooding, Cave-ins
Manganese greensand is a specially processed medium for iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulphide removal. This premium non-proprietary filter medium is processed from glauconitic greensand on which a shiny, hard finite thickness manganese oxide coating is formed and is firmly attached on every grain by a controlled process.
Over the years, water quality has noticeably deteriorated worldwide. This decline in water quality stems from the extreme demand on very limited natural resources. Various principles of filtration are used in many applications to improve the general quality of the water that is being treated. Along with screen filters, coagulation/filtration, neutralizing filters, oxidizing filters, clairifying filters and carbon filters are other treatment methods that may be used.
Various filter technologies stretch limited natural resources for drinking water
Most reverse osmosis systems waste as much as 20 gallons just to produce one gallon of product water. The new technology called "ZeroWaste" eliminates this problem by returning the concentrate water from the reverse osmosis system back to the home's plumbing, resulting in 100 percent efficiency.
The borough of West Mifflin, Penn., is a community located about nine miles southeast of downtown Pittsburgh. For years, the West Mifflin Sanitary Sewer Municipal Authority (WMSSMA) hauled liquid from its New England STP (a 1.2 mgd plant) to the Thompson Run facility (a 4.5 mgd plant), where it was processed on a belt press for dewatering. However, the hauling and associated labor proved very costly, and it was not always easy to coordinate dewatering schedules for both plants.
Additionally in the late 1990s, the WMSSMA faced a requirement to achieve higher cake solids and provide odor control that would respect nearby homes and businesses. Moreover, space constraints and staffing reductions necessitated a simple-to-operate installation.
No one wants to drink radium, nitrates or arsenic. However, if not for some technologically advanced methods of removing these contaminants, we all might be sipping on some very unhealthy water.
As the residential point-of-use (POU) reverse osmosis (RO) industry approaches its 35th anniversary, it is time for a reality check on the industry's progress to date as well as a look ahead to new technologies or improvements that the industry may introduce for POU RO systems in 2003.
Looking for Answers in 2003 and Beyond
While high concentrations of arsenic are found mostly in the Western region of the United States, parts of the Midwest and New England show levels of arsenic
that exceed the newly approved U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 parts per billion (ppb). Individuals not willing to wait for their water system's compliance with the arsenic standard currently are looking for treatment systems to use in their homes. POU and even point-of-entry (POE) treatment systems are an attractive solution for these individuals. The process should begin with a basic understanding of arsenic contamination and the element's chemistry, a complete water quality analysis of the application-specific water and the knowledge of available technologies.
Thanks to a new membrane filtration system, National Raisin Company, Fowler, Calif., not only has been able to cut its wastewater costs, but it also has opened up a potentially lucrative source of additional income.