The cartridge often is thought of as the heart of a filter system. However, the cartridge operates within a housing and even a cartridge that is perfectly matched to the application won’t perform adequately if it’s not also matched to a housing that meets the same application requirements. Specifying them together as an integrated system is the best way to assure they provide optimal performance.
Various authors have studied the use of activated carbon and for the most part have concluded activated carbon is not a cost-effective solution. However, these authors have failed to realize the limitations of carbon validation methods or the fact that not all carbons are alike, especially when chemical reactions control the process.
Presence of the bacteria Legionella pneumophilia in hospitals and nursing homes in the U.S. and Europe has been detected at an alarming rate. Contaminated water has frequently been found to be the source. Legionella is found naturally in water but multiplies in heating systems.
Legionella bacteria and other pathogens blocked for high-purity water
Whether it is an issue of limited space, material compatibility or just challenging feed water, there always will be a need for custom-engineered solutions in the water treatment industry. Lee Co. of Nashville, Tenn., first looked at preengineered reverse osmosis (RO) systems from its local water treatment equipment dealers. The company quickly realized that this approach would not fit a particular situation.
Custom-designed nanofiltration system solves space and process challenges
Although the basic components of any filtering system include the filter console, the communications link, the actuators and the instrumentation, it is the turnkey integration of these components into a pre-packaged, pre-engineered and even pre-programmed system that merits its classification as a major step forward.
Simple, low-power network architecture with menu-driven central control can revolutionize filtering operations
The Watsonville Wastewater Treatment Facility currently pumps 400 gallons per minute through the Tekleen water filter manufactured by Automatic Filters in Los Angeles.
Watsonville, Calif. incorporates automatic filter to recycle treated wastewater
These terms are pulled from "All About Water: An Illustrated Dictionary of Water Terminology" by Wes McGowan
Glossary of Terms
What research is being done at University's throughout the US? Colleges and universities across the U.S. are continuing their efforts in educating the population on the subject of arsenic. Both public and private universities are contributing their time, money, and expertise in areas of arsenic research such as geochemistry, health effects, and treatment options. Research programs, such as the ones listed below, are just a glimpse of the ongoing studies for arsenic. Ongoing research is necessary in order to continue to develop efficient and cost-effective solutions for the far-reaching problem of arsenic contamination.
University Research Programs
Research on arsenic can be broken down into three general areas -- health effects, treatment options and cost evaluations.There are more than 1,000 published research papers on health effects alone. This section provides an over-view of the most prominent research related to these areas which have impacted EPA’s decisions. There also are links to research organizations that can provide access to the specific projects conducted.
Historical and On-going Research
Current Legislative Issues