In the early 1990s, the Milford-Trumbauersville Area Sewer Authority in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, recognized the need to upgrade the existing sewage treatment plant. This was necessary to increase capacity and to meet future more stringent requirements set by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for Unami Creek.
Innovations in membrane technology, which has been used in major industries and hospitals, are driving the industry into the home.
An analysis of the raw well water (Table 1) shows a pH of 7.9 and 30 color units with >20 mg/L hydrogen sulfide, 5.6 mg/L iron and 0.6 mg/L manganese. Odor was detected at 10 threshold odor number (TON), indicative of the high hydrogen sulfide levels. To meet these water problems head-on, the homeowners formed the Bassi Ranch Mutual Water Co. in 1992.
Part one of this article appeared in the July issue and discussed microfiltration and utrafiltration. This article discusses nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.
Once considered a viable technology only for desalination, membrane processes are increasingly employed for removal of bacteria and other microorganisms, particulate material and natural organic material that can impart color, tastes and odors to the water.
Legionellosis, the disease caused by Legionella spc., is common, though most people would guess it is extremely rare. Outbreaks of Legionellosis, defined as a cluster of three or more cases in a single locale, occur regularly in the United States and much of the developed world. Outbreaks have been reported in Australia, Holland, Thailand, Japan, England and many other countries. In the U.S., the Center for Disease Control (CDC) receives reports of 1,000 cases of Legionellosis annually.
In today's laboratory environment, it is essential that pure water is available for numerous applications.
A new low cost technology for purifying arsenic contaminated groundwater assists the government of India in removing this slow but steady assassin from their midst.
System requires no electricity, treats 1,000 liters per day in West Bengal
How can someone protect himself from consuming water contaminated with Cryptosporidium or other microorganisms? One durable and competitively priced option is ceramic filters.Until recently, the United States was essentially a carbon filter market, in that chlorine, dirt, foul taste and odor were thought to be the only problems with drinking water. With the advent of the Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993, the general public and water treatment dealers started to question the quality of municipally treated water and private wells.
New liquid phase-based processes to regenerate spent AC have been conducted. Two liquid processes, competitive adsorbate displacement and supercritical fluid (SCF) regeneration, will be discussed.