Reverse osmosis plants increasingly are being installed in outlying and remote areas. By providing water they can sustain life and/or provide irrigation to previously remote areas without readily available fresh water sources.
Membrane filtration, widely used in chemical and biotechnology processes, is already established as a valuable means of filtering and cleaning wastewater and industrial process water.
As competition for limited water supplies increases, sea water treated by reverse osmosis will become more viable.
Culligan International Company has been providing services to small municipalities since the 1970s, but in February of 1997 the company signed a $1.9 million contract with the city of Abilene, Kansas, to remove nitrates from the city's water system.
The overall cost of the project was estimated at $6 million. This marked the largest domestic municipal project for Culligan and led to the creation of a municipal markets division within the company.
Fertilizers used in this farming area raised nitrate levels in the water beyond those allowed by state law.
"In four years, half of San Diego may be filling its glasses with tap water that once ran through its toilets."
Increased focus on technologies that meet tighter regulatory requirements and increased public pressure has motivated municipalities to take a serious look at microfiltration (MF) membranes as a viable treatment option. This article is intended to familiarize you with the basics of microfiltration and discuss how it compares to conventional alternatives.
Faced with upgrading aging facilities, a Florida water utility decided to incorporate reverse osmosis.
The latest on membrane technology for water treatment.Membrane system technology has been developed to a point where one or more of its forms can be applied to extract most of the contaminants of concern found in many raw water sources. Recognizing the importance of the latest findings to the drinking water supply community, the International Water Supply Association recently conducted a conference on the subject in Paris, France.
The biologically enhanced carbon process is an option for many water utilities.