Part one of this article appeared in the July issue and discussed microfiltration and utrafiltration. This article discusses nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.
Once considered a viable technology only for desalination, membrane processes are increasingly employed for removal of bacteria and other microorganisms, particulate material and natural organic material that can impart color, tastes and odors to the water.
The membrane processing technologies of microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are widely used to separate suspended and dissolved materials from water solutions in numerous industrial, medical and drinking water applications.
The increasingly broad range of requirements for water quality has motivated the water treatment industry to refine existing techniques, combine methods and explore new water purification technologies including desalination.
As consumer awareness grows in regard to the quality of water consumed every day from the numerous well water systems across America, the process that is gaining the most attention is that of disinfection.
There are solutions that work when a customer says "no" such as justifying the value and showing the customer he’ll be dollars ahead. What follows is a list of questions for the customer and then various scenerios that will refer you back to them.
Reverse osmosis plants increasingly are being installed in outlying and remote areas. By providing water they can sustain life and/or provide irrigation to previously remote areas without readily available fresh water sources.
An overview of UV disinfection and its applications.
The removal of impurities and contamination from water supplies or industrial chemicals is a process existing all over the world to varying degrees of sophistication. Filtration systems vary enormously according to location, the type of purification required and funding available.
An overview of various filtration methods and their applications
Membrane filtration, widely used in chemical and biotechnology processes, is already established as a valuable means of filtering and cleaning wastewater and industrial process water.