As populations grow, as urban, suburban and ex-urban areas expand, demand for water increases and safety standards rise. An effective and creative way to deal with problems of growth and resource management might just be to think small. A case in point is the Olivenhain Municipal Water District's (OMWD) treatment facility in San Diego County, California.
Over the years, water quality has noticeably deteriorated worldwide. This decline in water quality stems from the extreme demand on very limited natural resources. Various principles of filtration are used in many applications to improve the general quality of the water that is being treated. Along with screen filters, coagulation/filtration, neutralizing filters, oxidizing filters, clairifying filters and carbon filters are other treatment methods that may be used.
Various filter technologies stretch limited natural resources for drinking water
Thanks to a new membrane filtration system, National Raisin Company, Fowler, Calif., not only has been able to cut its wastewater costs, but it also has opened up a potentially lucrative source of additional income.
At the Procter & Gamble manufacturing plant in Greensboro, N.C., an Aquionics ultraviolet (UV) dechlorination unit was installed before two banks of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Trials that ran soon after the UV system’s installation showed a dramatic reduction in the RO membrane wash frequency—down from an average of eight cleanings per month to only two per month.
Reverse Osmosis Membranes Maintenance Costs Reduced
Membrane technology offers the possibility of managing total water resources. The spiral wound membrane element configuration is the most widely used due to its high packing density and relatively low price. This article will describe some technological advances in the area of innovative new membranes and application concepts for spiral wound membrane elements.
The Diablo Canyon Power Plant at Avila Beach in California utilizes seawater for both cooling water and makeup water for steam generation. Ionics, Inc., Watertown, Mass., designed and built and now operates a complete water treatment system serving the high-purity water needs of this power plant. Over the past eight years, the seawater treatment section has demonstrated excellent long-term performance as a result of strong design, consistent maintenance and qualified operators.
The patented combination of slowsand with nanofiltration offers benefits that merit considerable discussion. This combination successfully was piloted by the University of Arizona beginning in 1987.
West of Scotland Water (WoSW) awarded a contract, under competitive tender, for its first ultrafiltration plant to PCI-Water. This is the first installation in the United Kingdom using a hydranautics-based UltraBar system.
Small Groundwater Site Requires Metals Removal System
The Kenosha Water Utility treatment facility, located on the shores of Lake Michigan in Wisconsin, needed to upgrade its two plants to meet the expanding water needs of the community it services. Continuous microfiltration helped meet those needs.
In the last issue, we reviewed ultraviolet (UV) disinfection as a suitable technology for treating biologically unsafe water supplies. In this article, we will focus on system design and understanding the many available options for residential and commercial applications.
Understanding Residential and Commerical UV