Once considered a viable technology only for desalination, membrane processes are increasingly employed for removal of bacteria and other microorganisms, particulate material and natural organic material that can impart color, tastes and odors to the water.
Public Water Supply District #7 in Cass County, Mo., has combined an ultrafiltration membrane system with a ballasted flocculating/clarification system to deliver higher-purity water than ever before. The two treatment systems were designed by Koch Membrane Systems and Kruger of Denmark, respectively.
"Current and upcoming EPA regulations focused us directly towards new treatment techniques," Leonard Whiting, Cass County superintendent, said. "Many plants will not meet the regulations using current treatments.
Products At Work
The membrane processing technologies of microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are widely used to separate suspended and dissolved materials from water solutions in numerous industrial, medical and drinking water applications.
The increasingly broad range of requirements for water quality has motivated the water treatment industry to refine existing techniques, combine methods and explore new water purification technologies including desalination.
The removal of impurities and contamination from water supplies or industrial chemicals is a process existing all over the world to varying degrees of sophistication. Filtration systems vary enormously according to location, the type of purification required and funding available.
An overview of various filtration methods and their applications
Membrane filtration, widely used in chemical and biotechnology processes, is already established as a valuable means of filtering and cleaning wastewater and industrial process water.
This paper summarizes ozonation and by-product formation chemistry as well as ways to control by-product formation.
"In four years, half of San Diego may be filling its glasses with tap water that once ran through its toilets."
A thorough discussion of not only water treatment systems, but also the contaminants they remove.
Increased focus on technologies that meet tighter regulatory requirements and increased public pressure has motivated municipalities to take a serious look at microfiltration (MF) membranes as a viable treatment option. This article is intended to familiarize you with the basics of microfiltration and discuss how it compares to conventional alternatives.