Using reclaimed water for non-potable purposes as a means of conserving potable water supplies is the most prevalent method of water reuse in the United States today. One of the significant challenges for water reclamation facilities is to keep up with the demands for safe, compliant chlorine (Cl2) treatment. One utility that is effectively meeting this challenge is Southern California’s Otay Water District.
Built in the early 1970s, The Oakland, Maine, Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) treats and discharges approximately 300,000 gallons per day (gpd) of wastewater to the Messalonskee Stream. The facility was designed as a conventional activated sludge secondary treatment system to be used principally for BOD and TSS removals. The secondary effluent enters the Messalonskee Stream upstream of several impoundments. This practice has resulted in a steady decline in the water quality of the stream as evidenced by increased algae blooms and other signs of euthophication in impoundments located downstream of the discharge.
Effects of Recharge of Chlorinated State Water Project Waters to Groundwaters in Lancaster Area of California
As the population in Southern California increases, more and more demands are being put on the state’s groundwater resources, further exacerbating the overdraft problem. Many communities in Southern California are recharging their aquifers with imported surface waters to combat this problem. The major recharge normally is carried out during wet weather periods when surface water is plentiful. However, recharging these groundwater aquifers with imported surface water can create the potential for water quality degradation. The problem can start when surface water is disinfected with chlorine to prevent biofouling and remove pathogens.
Groundwaters in many parts of California are an important sole source of water supply. However, in some areas indiscriminate pumping has lowered aquifer levels by hundreds of feet. This has caused sediment compaction and ground subsidence.
Grease is clogging sewers nationwide, creating a costly mess to clean up and a dilemma for officials and regulators. Recently, the Wall Street Journal reported that 75 percent of the sewer systems in the United States work at only half capacity because of grease clogs. The cost of keeping sewers open, a cost borne by taxpayers at a local level, is $25 billion per year. The increase in grease in sewer lines is a direct result of the phenomenal growth in dual-income households who choose to eat out or take-out rather than cook at home.
Since the introduction of the metering pump, chemical feed for disinfection has been a primary application. As we move into the 21st Century, it again is time to review how we introduce chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite into our water systems. While the goal remains the same, changes in pump technology have been created to provide more accurate and consistent results. This article will discuss current metering pump technologies, proper pump sizing, installation and future enhancements.
Motor-driven, solenoid and peristaltic metering pumps provide proper control for specific applications and multiple needs.
Well-designed water distribution and cooling systems,
coupled with sound management and operational procedures, are essential to
control Legionella in industrial facilities—and a monitoring program
should not be considered as a replacement. However, most experts even those
ill-disposed towards routine Legionella monitoring, would agree that monitoring
should be considered if enough legionellosis risk factors apply to the system
in question. No management program, regardless of its treatment, maintenance or
monitoring components, can guarantee the absence of future legionellosis, but
prudent operational practices combined with ongoing review of risk factors will
allow facility managers to minimize exposure to Legionella and to its legal consequences.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority
This article will present an overview of Legionella bacteria, its ecology and sample collection strategies. A discussion of the pros and cons of Legionella monitoring also is included.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority.
The tragic events of September 11th highlighted America’s vulnerability to terrorism and spurred an unprecedented domestic security response. Water treatment facilities were identified almost immediately as a potential target for further attacks and were urged by the FBI to implement security measures, most of which are still in place.
Sensors and Analyzers Prove Instrumental in Preserving Civil War Sub: Recovered Submarine Requires Chloride Removal to Prevent Rust and Corrosion
In response to growing concerns over water quality issues in the Wash, a committee has developed a comprehensive adaptive management plan to save this primary outlet for water flows.