Private systems, while not federally regulated, are vulnerable to biological contamination from sewage, improper well construction and poor-quality water sources.
Whether the utility serves 5,000 people or 500,000 people, a facility that is easy to attack is an attractive, tempting target. Such water utilities must remove the metaphorical bull's-eye tattooed on their facilities by taking swift, certain, prudent action.
Medium- and smaller-sized water utilities find themselves in a bind as they are compelled to obey an underfunded government mandate
Emerging commercial technologies are replacing the "old standards" for small water system (SWS) applications. In contrast to large community systems, competitive economics, simple operation and low waste production will drive changes in technology and engineering. Some out-of-the-box thinking will be necessary in the shift to provide simpler, packaged or preengineered arsenic treatment systems.
Arsenic Treatment for Small Public Water Systems
This article will focus on three popular forms of chlorine: gas, sodium hypochlorite and dry calcium hypochlorite tablets. Each has advantages and disadvantages relative to cost, convenience, effectiveness, storage and regulatory issues. A look at the pros and cons of each can answer many questions about what's right for your application.
Tablet Chlorination Proves a Viable Alternative
In February, NSF International arranged for many experts to cover the issues and facets of point-of-use and point-of-entry (POU/POE), how they can be used for PWS compliance and other opportunities for the manufacturers and users. This article is intended to provide opinions and a broad conference overview.
Some really important research going on right now, which is critical for the point-of-use/point-of-entry (POU/POE) industry in order for POU/POE treatment to become an accepted practice for small public water system compliance. It seems as though we are closer than ever to finding acceptance in this arena.
Airports potentially can generate enormous amounts of polluted stormwater runoff. In addition to hydrocarbons such as oil and fuel from cars, trucks and planes, winter weather brings added sand and salt to the roadways. Expanding the terminal area for Continental's new Global Gateway at Newark Liberty International Airport in late 2001 included increasing the paved areas around the terminal to accommodate the new taxiways and roadways. The system demonstrates the effectiveness of applying stormwater treatment technology to an already congested area where competition for space is fierce.
In 1997, EPA and Congress officially recognized onsite wastewater treatment systems (commonly referred to as septic systems) as a viable, long-term solution for treating wastewater. This was an important designation since nearly 40 percent of new homes in the United States use this type of system to treat household wastewater.
The security measures for Community Water System are based on the established credo "detect, delay and respond."
The patented combination of slowsand with nanofiltration offers benefits that merit considerable discussion. This combination successfully was piloted by the University of Arizona beginning in 1987.