The Legionella bacterium, Legionella pneumophila — the fundamental agent of Legionnaires’ disease — is a water-based organism that causes infection when inhaled in aerosol form. Legionnaires’ disease acquired its name in 1976, when an outbreak of pneumonia occurred among attendees of a convention of the American Legion in Philadelphia. Later, the bacterium causing the illness was named Legionella.
Scale prevention helps reduce risk of Legionnaires’ disease
Sphagnum moss is a natural bog plant that decays and forms peat. It has been used in the horticulture industry for years, and has a long folk history for its ability to purify water, heal wounds and preserve food. Today you can add “preventative measure for cooling tower scale and corrosion” to the growing list of its many attributes as a viable, all-natural water treatment alternative.
Combating cooling tower corrosion and scale with moss treatment
Scalewatcher commercial electronic descaling systems provide effective, eco-friendly limescale buildup removal and prevention. Microelectronics enable the descaling system to fit in small, normally inaccessible spaces in commercial applications. Ideal for use in laundries, restaurants and bakeries, the system is available in NEMA2/IP54, but any ingress rating or configuration can be supplied.
In any membrane filtration system, scaling is inevitable. There are many forms of scale, some of the most common being calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate and strontium sulfate. Left unmanaged, crystal scale will accumulate and become a mass of crystals on the surface of the membrane, causing blockage. This is harmful to reverse osmosis (RO) systems because it increases operating pressure. High pressure can put stress on the system and reduce product output and efficiency levels. A severely scaled membrane easily can reduce its gallon output by more than half.
Scale not only clogs pipes and destroys valves, it also consumes energy. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook 2012, more than 10% of the energy consumed in a home goes toward heating water.
Many consumers use energy-efficient products to save money. What many do not know is that energy-saving efforts can be negated if they have hard water and do not address scale.
Developing a consistent standard for energy-saving anti-scale devices
Perhaps the most attractive aspect of golfing is the idea of spending several hours in a park-like setting strolling across lush fairways, putting greens and tees. For this reason, golf course managers dedicate a great deal of resources to the maintenance and health of special turf grasses.
RO treatment system keeps golf course grass healthy
Look at the heating element of a washing machine or dishwasher in a hard water area and you will see a white encrustation containing hardness salts. This commonly is referred to as limescale and is an example of domestic fouling.
Industrial fouling poses a far greater problem than anything in the domestic sector. Huge volumes of fouled fluids are handled, and the systems that contain the fluids can become fouled as well. The quality of water streams used by industry varies widely and gives rise to numerous fouling problems.
Controlling Scale Deposition
Part one of this article appeared in the February issue and described how nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal are being run side-by-side at the Brackish Water Demonstration Facility in California.