Cryptosporidium—Once a Common Affliction to Travelers of Underdeveloped Countries, Now a Common Outbreak in Communities in the U.S.
In recent years, chromium became a more talked about contaminant among consumers. It helped that not only was it being covered in news reports, but even Hollywood took a chance at bringing it to the forefront of concerns among consumers with its movie, “Erin Brockovich.”
Nitrates have no detectable color, taste or smell at the concentrations involved in drinking water supplies, and they do not cause discoloration of plumbing fixtures, so they remain undetectable to our senses. Nitrate removal processes must be either foolproof or include extensive monitoring of the treated water to detect breakthrough or determine the need for regeneration.
Legionnaires' disease is considered so catastrophic that, in France, it must be reported to the medical authorities immediately. This practice has been in place since 1987. During the last decade, public health monitoring systems for this disease have been strengthened. Today, this hazard that arises from buildings has become an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. The resulting respiratory infections are behind the recurrent epidemics emanating from hot water systems in buildings and air-conditioning cooling towers.
Companies develop treatment for hot water installations and air conditioning systems
Basic water chemistry, terminology and applications can be very complicated and not seem so basic to individuals without a chemistry background. This series of articles will help shed light on the chemistry of water and the mysteries that it can contain, plus explain the technologies used to treat water so the purchaser can make an educated attempt to find the right solution for a particular application. There are no cut-and-dry formulas for water treatment and certainly no cure-all for every application or problem, but with an understanding of how water works and the technologies developed to treat water, a person can utilize his resources to come up with solutions for his particular need or application.
Brushing Up on Water Chemistry 101
Effects of Recharge of Chlorinated State Water Project Waters to Groundwaters in Lancaster Area of California
As the population in Southern California increases, more and more demands are being put on the state’s groundwater resources, further exacerbating the overdraft problem. Many communities in Southern California are recharging their aquifers with imported surface waters to combat this problem. The major recharge normally is carried out during wet weather periods when surface water is plentiful. However, recharging these groundwater aquifers with imported surface water can create the potential for water quality degradation. The problem can start when surface water is disinfected with chlorine to prevent biofouling and remove pathogens.
Groundwaters in many parts of California are an important sole source of water supply. However, in some areas indiscriminate pumping has lowered aquifer levels by hundreds of feet. This has caused sediment compaction and ground subsidence.
A report released by the Environmental Working Group (EWG)
and U.S. Public Interest Research Group (U.S. PIRG) has taken aim at
chlorination byproducts (CBPs) in tap water. The group‘s assessment
states that more than 100,000 women are at elevated risk of miscarriage or
birth defects because of CBPs in tap water.
This article will present an overview of Legionella bacteria, its ecology and sample collection strategies. A discussion of the pros and cons of Legionella monitoring also is included.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority.
The intake system that will draw cooling makeup water from the Kaskaskia River for the $250-million Holland energy plant in Shelby County, Illinois, was designed to balance construction cost imperatives against the river’s variable flow, regulatory requirements and the owner’s operating preferences. The result is a state-of-the-art vital element for the gas-fired, combined cycle plant. As more and more closed-cycle plants are proposed, the concepts that Parsons applied along the Kaskaskia River may provide a good starting point on the drawing boards.