Basic water chemistry, terminology and applications can be very complicated and not seem so basic to individuals without a chemistry background. This series of articles will help shed light on the chemistry of water and the mysteries that it can contain, plus explain the technologies used to treat water so the purchaser can make an educated attempt to find the right solution for a particular application. There are no cut-and-dry formulas for water treatment and certainly no cure-all for every application or problem, but with an understanding of how water works and the technologies developed to treat water, a person can utilize his resources to come up with solutions for his particular need or application.
Brushing Up on Water Chemistry 101
Effects of Recharge of Chlorinated State Water Project Waters to Groundwaters in Lancaster Area of California
As the population in Southern California increases, more and more demands are being put on the state’s groundwater resources, further exacerbating the overdraft problem. Many communities in Southern California are recharging their aquifers with imported surface waters to combat this problem. The major recharge normally is carried out during wet weather periods when surface water is plentiful. However, recharging these groundwater aquifers with imported surface water can create the potential for water quality degradation. The problem can start when surface water is disinfected with chlorine to prevent biofouling and remove pathogens.
Groundwaters in many parts of California are an important sole source of water supply. However, in some areas indiscriminate pumping has lowered aquifer levels by hundreds of feet. This has caused sediment compaction and ground subsidence.
A report released by the Environmental Working Group (EWG)
and U.S. Public Interest Research Group (U.S. PIRG) has taken aim at
chlorination byproducts (CBPs) in tap water. The group‘s assessment
states that more than 100,000 women are at elevated risk of miscarriage or
birth defects because of CBPs in tap water.
This article will present an overview of Legionella bacteria, its ecology and sample collection strategies. A discussion of the pros and cons of Legionella monitoring also is included.
Water specialists should make Legionella reduction a top priority.
The intake system that will draw cooling makeup water from the Kaskaskia River for the $250-million Holland energy plant in Shelby County, Illinois, was designed to balance construction cost imperatives against the river’s variable flow, regulatory requirements and the owner’s operating preferences. The result is a state-of-the-art vital element for the gas-fired, combined cycle plant. As more and more closed-cycle plants are proposed, the concepts that Parsons applied along the Kaskaskia River may provide a good starting point on the drawing boards.
The tragic events of September 11th highlighted America’s vulnerability to terrorism and spurred an unprecedented domestic security response. Water treatment facilities were identified almost immediately as a potential target for further attacks and were urged by the FBI to implement security measures, most of which are still in place.
As membrane systems become more prominent in the treatment of well water supplies, more care must be taken to review the effects of microbiological contamination.
As the POU/POE water treatment industry progresses to new levels and meets new challenges, issues regarding regulations and standards continually arise. As the industry waits for the EPA and U.S. government to finalize regulations, the industry is forced to ride out the MCL changes, rule withdrawals and estimated costs that each proposal brings. Listed here is a review of regulation changes the industry has seen in the last year and a brief look at which ones to watch for in the future.
Government Regulations and Safe Drinking Water Act Updates
The Kenosha Water Utility treatment facility, located on the shores of Lake Michigan in Wisconsin, needed to upgrade its two plants to meet the expanding water needs of the community it services. Continuous microfiltration helped meet those needs.
The following is some basic information compiled from industry experts at diverse companies. Additional information is available at the contact information provided.
The Basic Types, Materials and Applications for Various Filter Cartridges.