Water is essential. It makes up 50% to 70% of an adult’s total body weight, and without it, survival time is limited to a matter of days. Globally, people are confronted with many problems relating to water. It is estimated that 1.5 to 2 billion people in the world lack access to safe potable water. Third-world countries specifically continue to be plagued by water-related diseases; however, even developed nations confront water problems.
It comes as no surprise that the latest research shows that world demand for water disinfection products is projected to approach $7 billion by 2012, according to the Freedonia Group, a leading international industrial research company.
Currently, the U.S. remains the largest water disinfection market; however, developing nations, such as China and India, are expected to register the fastest growth.
Essentially, all U.S. utilities using surface water supplies and some using groundwater are required to use some form of disinfection. Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ground Water Rule, more utilities will be expected to disinfect in the near future.
Primary methods of disinfection are chlorination, chloramines, ozone and ultraviolet light. Other disinfection methods include chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate and nanofiltration.
When determining which disinfectant to use, utilities must consider various factors, including water quality, onsite manufacturer of the disinfectant, disinfectant volume, resiliency, community safety and of course overall cost. Furthermore, traditional disinfection techniques can create additional challenges such as unwanted disinfection byproducts.
In a continued effort to deliver information to water and wastewater treatment professionals, Water & Wastes Digest and Water Quality Products are pleased to bring you Water Disinfection—A 2009 Guide to Current Disinfection Technologies and Applications. We hope this comprehensive guide will offer valuable information and keep you informed of the safest and most effective methods of water disinfection.